B|ueDrake (bluedrake) wrote in tessier_ashpool,

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Please dont click the below link if easily offended, it goes into SICK DETAIL about human and animal medical experiments and helps prove to a degree cybernetics is indeed feasible..


In 1902: famous Russian physiologist A.Kulebyako successfully performed reanimation of a child's heart (being taken away from a dead body, the heart continued functioning outside the organism within several hours). Further, the scientist decided to reanimate a human head. First, the experiment was performed on a fish head. Special liquid, blood substitute, was brought to the head along blood vessels. The experiment brought astonishing results: the fish head moved the eyes and the fins, it opened and closed the mouth which proved that the head was still alive.

1912: Russian scientists kept a severed dog head alive for several hours with an artificial circulation machine. In later years, Russian scientist Fladimir Demikhov transplanted the front half of one dog
onto the body of a German shepherd, a feat that Dr. White has called "beautiful, a tremendous accomplishment." The pain-crazed dog halves kept attacking each other and had to be killed. Dr. White had admitted doing many similar experiments (parabiosis).

1928: physiologists S.Bryukhonenko and S.Chechulin demonstrated a living head of a haematherm, a dog. The dog head was rather active when connected up to a pump oxygenator. When a tampon with acid was put on the tongue of the dog head it made attempts to throw it away; but when a slice of sausage was put in the dog mouth, the dog head licked the lips. The dog eyes winked when felt the puff of air.

1959: Professor V.Demikhov also conducted several experiments with dog heads. The professor was absolutely sure that similar experiments allowed to sustain life in a human head as well. Have similar experiments ever been performed on a human head? This issue is inevitably connected with moral and serious social problems that doctors may face if they decide to transplant the head of one man to the body of another. Information of this sort is always particularly classified.

1964 -- Dr. David Gilboe, University of Wisconsin, decapitated 15 dogs and kept the heads alive with mechanical pumps. By this time, Dr. White had removed the brains from many monkeys and kept them alive with machines. The brains exhibited electrical activity and absorbed oxygen and glucose, indicating they were alive. Dr. White claims there is no pain involved. Other medical experts have disagreed, since the pain and fear felt by the living brain can't be estimated, and the normal defense mechanism of "fainting" under stress by cutting the blood supply off is denied to the isolated brain by its attachment to circulating machines.

1965 -- Dr. White removed the brain of a dog and implanted it in the neck of another dog, where it remained alive for some period of time.

mid-1970s: the press reported a sensational statement. Two neurosurgeons from Germany Walner Kraiter and Henry Courige managed to sustain life in an amputated human head within 20 days. A 40-year-old man was taken to the hospital after a traffic accident. The man's life could not be saved as his head was almost completely cut off the body. Under those conditions, the neurosurgeons decided to maintain life in the brain of the victim. A life-support system was connected up to the head; the system managed to maintain the brain activity for about three weeks although the body of the man was already dead. What is more, this may sound shocking but the doctors got into contact with the head. The head could not speak as it had no throat, but the doctors could read its lips and saw that the head realized everything that happened to it.

1971: Dr. White begins to transplant the heads of monkeys onto the decapitated bodies of other monkeys, connecting the jugular and carotid arteries. The spinal cord cannot be connected, so the head and body are both paralyzed. The bodies/heads lived for up to two weeks.

1989: Doctor Truman Doughty from Philadelphia performed an incredible experiment. In 1989, it turned out that his wife suffered from cancer. The tragic news encouraged the doctor to develop a life-support system. The disease grew progressively worse, and the doctor lost every hope for salvation of his wife. At that very period he decided to save the head. The operation lasted for about six hours. Doctor Doughty knew perfectly well he could be charged with murder. The doctor ran an incredible risk, but as it turned out later he risked not in vain. The incredible experiment resulted in triumph. The doctor's wife did not doubt as to the necessity of the operation and gave her consent. For several years, Truman kept secret that the head of his wife was still alive. It was just recently that the world has learnt of the incredible experiment. Doctor Doughty says that his wife's head can even speak with the help of a special device. The plausibility of the above mentioned facts cannot be verified, but it is clear that scientific ideas that Alexander Belyayev stated in his books have become the reality



2003: For several years, research groups in Europe and the USA have been working on systems which allow for a direct dialog between man and machine. To this end, a "Brain Computer Interface" (BCI) has been developed. Cerebral electric activity is recorded via the electroencephalogram (EEG): electrodes, attached to the scalp, measure the electric signals of the brain. These signals are amplified and transmitted to the computer, which transforms them into device control commands. The crucial requirement for the successful functioning of the BCI is that the electric activity on the scalp surface already reflects motor intentions, i.e., the neural correlate of preparation for hand or foot movements. The BCI detects the motor-related EEG changes and uses this information, for example, to perform a choice between two alternatives: the detection of the preparation to move the left hand leads to the choice of the first, whereas the right hand intention would lead to the second alternative. By this means it is possible to operate devices which are connected to the computer; such a communication can even be realised via the internet.




I know fellas its gruesome and maybe even slightly off topic but does prove short-term cybernetics is possible in 2004.. If you can keep a head alive for weeks and issue commands to a computer via BCI than a machine/body could be built and controlled using only the head and/or brian alone.. However many ethical questions are raised when looking at the process realistically and problems with disease and immune systems etc, etc, etc arise with long-term applications.. BUT again short-term (Few weeks) it *CAN* be done.

To sound even worse (yeah, I work with limited resources) before anyone starts talking about robotic mech type bodies and stuff an automobile chaise for example would give the mobility needed and be big enough to house all the life support and power systems.. (Your last moments on earth as a Ford product, sleep on that mental image.)

-Frankenstein eat your heart out-

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